Additionally, where indicated, paired t tests were employed. A p value?< 0.05 was considered significant. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgeme
Online PR News – 22-October-2017 – ND – Additionally, where indicated, paired t tests were employed. A p value?< 0.05 was considered significant. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 654 and Graduate School 235). We are grateful to J. Beyer and S. Janz for conducting parts of the experiments. H.-V.V.N. and M.M. performed the experiments and related analysis. H.-V.V.N., J.B., and M.M. designed the experiments. H.-V.V.N., T.M., J.B., and M.M. interpreted the data and contributed to writing the manuscript. ""One of the most well-studied cortical visual areas in primates is the middle temporal complex (area MT+). Despite a large and comprehensive selleck products body of literature, the way that MT+ represents visual space is debated. Area MT in the macaque monkey, and its human homolog hMT+, has been shown to represent positions coarsely in a retinotopic manner (Gattass and Gross, 1981; Bumetanide Huk et?al., 2002; Wandell et?al., 2007). Detailed mapping procedures revealed up to four retinotopic maps that collectively form the MT+ complex in humans (Dukelow et?al., 2001; Amano et?al., 2009; Kolster et?al., 2010). Recently, some researchers have proposed that MT+ contributes to stable perception across eye movements by representing object locations in a world-centered, or spatiotopic, coordinate frame (Melcher and Morrone, 2003; dï¿½ï¿½Avossa et?al., 2007; Ong et?al., 2009; Crespi et?al., 2011). Other researchers have found evidence for only retinotopic, and not spatiotopic, coordinate frames in MT+ (Gardner et?al., 2008; Morris et?al., 2010; Hartmann et?al., 2011; Ong and Bisley, 2011; Au et?al., 2012; Golomb and Kanwisher, 2012), a difference that may be due to the location of covert visual attention (Gardner et?al., 2008; Crespi et?al., 2011). Most of these studies investigated spatial representations in MT+ at a relatively coarse spatial scale. However, during routine activities, such as navigating around obstacles or manipulating objects, the visual systemï¿½ï¿½s ability to localize objects on a fine spatial scale defines our ability to interact MEK inhibitor successfully with the world. At a population level, MT+ represents fine-scale spatial information, discriminating position shifts of one-third of a degree of visual angle or less (Fischer et?al., 2011). At these fine scales, a number of visual phenomena show remarkable dissociations between the perceived position of an object and its retinal or spatial position; for example, motion in the visual field can shift the perceived positions of stationary or moving objects (Fr?hlich, 1923; Ramachandran and Anstis, 1990; De Valois and De Valois, 1991; Nijhawan, 1994; Whitney and Cavanagh, 2000; Krekelberg and Lappe, 2001; Whitney, 2002; Eagleman and Sejnowski, 2007). Disrupting activity in area MT+ by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) reduces these motion-induced mislocalization illusions (McGraw et?al., 2004; Whitney et?al., 2007; Maus et?al., 2013).