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The word ‘Public’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Publicus’, Public means open, unrestricted, pertaining to the people or the full complement of persons in a state or country. Opinion is generally a tentatively held and expressible point of view. The term is used with the connotations of an opinion as being intellectually held and based on at least some facts or data.
“Opinion” is differentiated from belief where emotional component is entailed and is differentiated from ‘attitude” which has a broader range of semantic implication.
Definition: According to Lord Bryce, public opinion is the aggregate of all points of view about the problems affecting a society or nation.
According to Soltas, an opinion is not a mere thought, it is the point of view thought to be implemented and applied.
According to Jame 7’. Young. a public opinion is a decision of the social wisdom deduced after a large discussion on a problem of common interest.
According to Kimball Young. Public Opinion is a decision acquired after discussion of positive-negative points of view on an important common problem.
According to Lippman, public opinion is that mental concept which the individuals have to achieve different aims about interrelationship and other necessities of life.
According to L. W. Doob, public opinion is related with the views about a common problem given by the people who are members of the same social group.
Characteristics of the Public Opinion:
(i) Collective point of view:
Public opinion is neither personal, nor individualistic. It is the opinion of effective majority as their supporters are more than the opponent.
(ii) Common cause:
Public opinion is related with the common cause of a national pursuits and benefits.
(iii) Reasoned out:
Public opinion is formed after discussions and reasoning. It is not based on mere emotions, beliefs or prejudices.
(iv) Well explained and distinct:
Public opinion is clear and solid based on the public needs, interests and problems avoiding useless thoughts and views.
(v) Strong and Powerful:
Public opinion is politically, socially and economically very strong and powerful. Government in democratic system works as a government of the people, for the people and by the people. Public opinion controls a democratic government from its deviations of authority. Often a change in public opinion brings a revolution and change in a government. The progressive countries know the importance of public opinion and they make their policies in the light of public opinion.
Formation of Public Opinion:
Public opinion develops after passing through the following stages:
1. Selection of a problem: First of all the problem related to the majority of people is recognized as a need of the time to be solved. Problem is presented in a way to be understood easily by the people to give their opinion for the solution.
2. Thoughtful research process: The problem is explained to people through discussions, lectures and speeches of the scholars on the electronic and print media i.e. Radio, TV, Newspapers, magazines etc. Different organizations come forward on the stage to acquaint people with the problems. Thus all the people become aware of the problem and its need for solutions. The solvent proposals, plans and methods are presented before people with the reasons in favour or against the issue. Opinion Polls present the view of majority to come to a decision.
3. A compromising decision: The well explained and well discussed problem brings a compromise between for and against, and a via media in making a decision is traced out.
4. Practical utility: The opinion of majority is accepted for the implementation. The disputes and the minor mischievous elements become silent for the time being.